Religious Existentialism in Contemporary Islamic Discourse (Study of Shari'ati's Thought)
Humans are rational beings (Hayawān an-Nāthiq), with this potential, humans are able to become unique creatures with all their creativity. However, in expressing the unique values possessed by humans, space for freedom is needed. So that with the availability of this space for freedom, humans are able to become creatures of existence. The study of individual freedom has attracted a lot of attention from Muslim and Western philosophers and has formed a famous variant of the discourse of thought with the term existentialism. The existentialism school of philosophy is a school of thought that considers that humans are unique individual subjects and cannot be understood in a closed and final sense, because each individual has initiative, initiative, free will, and creativity. Therefore, this article will examine the concept of religious existentialism offered by Ali tools used qualitative research methods, the study research library (library research) and theoretical content analysis (content analysis). The results of this study indicate that first, the definition of religious existentialism according to Ali Shari'ati is that humans are creatures who always exist, actively create themselves, act, become and change well, less or more than their previous state. In the process of becoming, man always moves towards the ideal stage of perfection, namely God. Second, the characteristics of Shariati's religious existentialism, he said that humans are two-dimensional creatures, namely: the basyariyah dimension and the insāniyah dimension. Besyar is a creature who simply are, but man is a creature that became, and only the values insaniyah capable of maximizing the potential of the divine so that man bears the title of Caliph of Allah on earth. To hone the potential insāniyah to God, Ali offered three conditions that must be met, namely: self-awareness, free will and creativity.
Hiplunudin, Agus. Filsafat Eksistensialisme. Cetakan kedua. Yogyakarta: Suluh Media, 2019.
Kuswandi, Iwan. TEORI PRAKTIS MENYUSUN PROPOSAL PENELITIAN. YOGYAKARTA: Lintas Nalar, CV, 2018.
Lesmadona, Ferutama. “Konsep Manusia Dalam PrespektifAli Syari’ati.” UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 2008.
M. Yunus, Firdaus. “KEBEBASAN DALAM FILSAFAT EKSISTENSIALISME JEAN PAUL SARTRE.” vol.11,Nomor 2, Desember 2011 (n.d.).
Malaky, Ekky. Ali Syari’ati Filosof Etika dan Arsitek Iran Modern. Jakarta: Penerbit Teraju, 2004.
Meleong, Lexy J. Metologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 1989.
Rahnema, Ali. Ali Syari’ati, Guru, Penceramah dan Pemberontak, dalam Para Perintis Zaman Baru Islam. Bandung: Mizan, 1998.
Ramadhan, M. “Teologi Kemanusiaan Studi atas Pemikiran Ali Syariati.” vol.22, Juli 2011 (n.d.).
Roswantoro, Alim. “Eksistensialisme Teistik Muhammmad Iqbal” (n.d.).
———. “Keberagamaan Otentik Dalam Eksistensialisme Religius Kajian atas Pemikiran Soren Kierkegaard dan Muhammad Iqbal serta Implikasinya Bagi keberagamaan Kontemporer.” UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2007.
Shofa, Muhammad. “Manusia dalam Prespektif Eksistensialisme (Studi Komparasi Soren Kierkegaard dan Ali Syari’ati).” Universitas Sunan Ampel Surabaya, 2012.
Syari’ati, Ali. Al-Insan, Al-Islam wa Madaris Al-Gharb. Cetakan kedua., terj. Afif Muhammad. Bandung: Pustaka Hidayah, 1996.
———. Manusia & Islam. terj. R W Ashar. Yogyakarta: Cakrawangsa, 2017.
———. Tugas Cendikiawan Muslim. Kedua., terj. M. Amien Rais. Jakarta: PT. RajaGrafindo Persada, 1994.
Wahyudi, Chafitd. “Tuhan dalam Perdebatan Eksistensialime.” vol.Volume 2 nomor 2 Desember 2012 (n.d.): hal. 372-372.
Wasid. Menafsirkan Tradisi & Moderenitas Idi-Ide Pembaruan Islam. Surabaya: pustaka idea, 2011.
Zaprulkhan. Filsafat Moderen Barat Sebuah Kajian Tematik. Banguntapan Yogyakarta: Ircisod, 2018.
Copyright (c) 2021 Irwandi Bayu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors send the manuscript with the understanding that if accepted for publication, the copyright of the article belongs to the authors and retains publishing rights without restriction.